All spoke about same amount of time
High accuracy on all tasks
Navigation task, routes chosen were similar
During tasks, subjects stated they visually noted the paths, landmarks, and movies
Real world routes and landmarks
All overly qualified (3 years training min.)
All from same area (familiar with routes)
High ecological validity
No incentive to lie (no reward)
All asked same routes, landmarks, movies
Routes: Activation of the hippocampus in topographic memory retrieval. Specifically the right hippocampus. Since real world environments were used, the study suggests that this may reflect the role of the hippocampus in high level spatial manipulation and decision making.
Landmarks: The main difference between activation patterns for routes and landmarks was that the right hippocampus was activated only in the routes task but not during recall of landmarks. The landmarks lacked a location within a large-scale spatial
framework and thoughts of navigation between them were not possible, again suggesting a role for the right hippocampus in the crucial complex stage of facilitating navigation in large-scale space.
Semantic memory: Except for cerebral activity, the brain regions activated during recall of movie plots was different from routes tasks. Most brain activity was on the left side of the brain.
Only male subjects
Only 11 subjects (more would have made it more accurate)
Conducted in a lab
Nothing ethically wrong with it (no harm/damage)